Recent advances in the field of ophthalmology include adhesives for the treatment of surgical and trauma-induced ocular wounds. Employed as surgical adhesives for more than forty years, cyanoacrylate and fibrin currently approved as general surgical adhesives remain contraindicated for ophthalmic use. Researchers have developed new adhesive systems based on protein tissue solder and hydrogels to improve upon sutures, used in current practice. We have reviewed these new adhesives and found them to be efficacious in closing many ocular wound types. Based on our findings in the laboratory and those reported in the literature, we summarize current ophthalmic adhesive research, provide insight into the effects of molecular composition, structure, and functionality on adhesive performance, and suggest testing protocols for the design of an ideal ophthlamic adhesive.