The effects of oil solubility and composition on the zeta potential and drop size of oil-in-water emulsions stabilised by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were studied by electroacoustics and ultrasonic attenuation. The ζ-potentials of toluene and alkane emulsions were found to decrease (be less negative) as the water solubility of the dispersed oil phase increased. The ζ-potentials also depended on the composition of mixed oils, becoming more negative with increasing mole fraction of an insoluble oil (hexadecane). As the water solubility of the dispersed oil phase increased, the conductance within the Stern layer relative to the diffuse layer (Kis/Kds) increased, which is interpreted as due to the displacement of the shear plane further into the diffuse layer. The shear plane was calculated to increase from 0.50 nm at the insoluble oil–water interface (hexadecane) to 2.5 nm at a soluble oil–water interface of toluene. The lowering of the ζ-potentials of the soluble oils is ascribed to the shift of the shear plane into the diffuse layer, resulting in a more diffuse interface. The total surface conductance of the mixed oils was related to the log of the oil solubility and decreased from 7 × 10−9 Ω−1 to 3 × 10−9 Ω−1 with increasing oil solubility from hexadecane to toluene, respectively. The lower surface conductance at the soluble oil–water interface is attributed to a reduction in the dielectric constant of the water inside of the shear plane, caused by the presence of the soluble oil.
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Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics
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