This contribution provides a new approach for single blood cell analysis in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with the possibility of utilizing simultaneously on the same sample the unique capabilities of the two methods fluorescence staining and Raman spectroscopy. By doing so this technique enables the potential of accurate and rapid cell identification in order to determine cell parameters immediately (e.g. the study of the level of activation or phagocytosis activity of single blood cells). Fluorescence labeling of blood cells offers the great possibility of differentiating easily between the subtypes of white blood cells, while Raman spectroscopy reveals molecular fingerprint information with a spatial resolution down to the diffraction limit. Compared to an unstained cell, the presented results nicely demonstrate that the selected fluorescence dye does not influence the Raman spectrum of a labeled blood cell notably. By the combined application of Raman spectroscopy and statistical data analysis a distinction between white blood cell substructures could be performed. Since several blood cell types also differ in the amount of their cell components, differentiation between several blood cell types is also possible when one blood cell is described in the database by several Raman spectra according their presented sub-microscopic structures. This capability with the possibility of accurate and rapid blood cell identification in cerebrospinal fluid is extremely promising for implementation in clinical diagnostics.