Jump to main content
Jump to site search

Issue 14, 2007
Previous Article Next Article

Layer-by-layer assembly: from conventional to unconventional methods

Author affiliations


Layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly is a powerful means for fabricating multilayer thin films with controlled architecture and composition. This feature article discusses different types of methods for LbL assembly. On the one hand, some of the conventional LbL methods are introduced, which are driven by electrostatic interactions, hydrogen bonds, step-by-step reactions, sol–gel processes, molecular recognition, charge-transfer, stepwise stereocomplex assembly, and electrochemistry. On the other hand, some of the unconventional methods for fabricating of the building blocks which can not be assembled by conventional methods are also summarized. These unconventional methods usually involve the formation of supramolecular structures via one type of self-assembly. These structures can subsequently be used as building blocks in another type of self-assembly. To take advantage of these conventional and unconventional methods, a great number of building blocks can be fabricated into multilayer thin films with a defined sequence structure in a designed way. It has been demonstrated that LbL methods provide new horizons for surface molecular engineering.

Graphical abstract: Layer-by-layer assembly: from conventional to unconventional methods

Back to tab navigation

Publication details

The article was received on 27 Oct 2006, accepted on 14 Nov 2006 and first published on 05 Dec 2006

Article type: Feature Article
DOI: 10.1039/B615590A
Citation: Chem. Commun., 2007,0, 1395-1405
  •   Request permissions

    Layer-by-layer assembly: from conventional to unconventional methods

    X. Zhang, H. Chen and H. Zhang, Chem. Commun., 2007, 0, 1395
    DOI: 10.1039/B615590A

Search articles by author