We describe a novel chemotaxis assay based on the microvalve-actuated release of a chemoattractant from a cell-free microchamber into a cell-containing microchamber. The microvalve chemotaxis device (μVCD) was placed on the stage of a conventional inverted microscope to obtain time-lapse micrographs of neutrophils migrating in a radially-symmetric evolving gradient of the chemotactic factor CXCL8/Interleukin-8. A fluorescent tracer was added to the CXCL8 solution to visualize the evolution of the gradient profile, so that at each time point the cell positions could be assigned CXCL8 concentration values. Tracking of individual neutrophils for 90 minutes showed that (a) the neutrophil migratory response is, on average, radially directed towards the CXCL8 source; (b) significant non-radial displacements occur frequently; and (c) there is considerable heterogeneity in the migration speeds and directions amongst the neutrophil population. A custom-made imaging analysis tool was used to extract measurements of migratory behavior such as speed, velocity along the gradient's radial axis, and the cosine of the turning angle as a function of CXCL8 concentration. The μVCD can be easily adapted to study the migratory behavior of cultured cells other than neutrophils.