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Issue 13, 2004
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Synthesis, structure, and phase relationship in lithium manganese oxide spinel

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Abstract

Phase relationships, structures, magnetic properties, and phase transitions in the lithium manganese oxide spinel were studied based on a wide variety of samples synthesized at temperatures over a range of 750 ≤ t ≤ 900 °C with Li/Mn ratios between 0.5 and 0.55 and various starting materials. The system was divided into three categories: oxygen deficient spinels, LiMn2O4  δ; lithium-substituted spinels, Li1 + xMn2  xO4  δ; and the stoichiometric spinel, LiMn2O4. Their structures were discussed based on the structure data determined by TOF neutron and synchrotron X-ray Rietveld analysis. The amount of oxygen vacancy was determined to be δ ≈ 0.14(3) in LiMn2O4  δ, for example, for the spinel synthesized at 900 °C, and the nearly stoichiometric composition was obtained at 750 °C followed by heating at 470 °C for several times from lithium hydroxide and manganese oxides as starting materials. The oxygen vacancy was dependent upon the synthesis conditions and starting materials. It decreased as the Li/Mn ratio varied from 0.5 to 0.55, and as the synthesis temperature decreased from 900 to 750 °C. Based on the synthesis and structure results, the phase relationship in the ternary diagram, Li–Mn–O, is discussed.

Graphical abstract: Synthesis, structure, and phase relationship in lithium manganese oxide spinel

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Publication details

The article was received on 17 Nov 2003, accepted on 13 Apr 2004 and first published on 20 May 2004


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/B314810F
Citation: J. Mater. Chem., 2004,14, 1948-1958
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    Synthesis, structure, and phase relationship in lithium manganese oxide spinel

    M. Yonemura, A. Yamada, H. Kobayashi, M. Tabuchi, T. Kamiyama, Y. Kawamoto and R. Kanno, J. Mater. Chem., 2004, 14, 1948
    DOI: 10.1039/B314810F

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