The calculation of uncertainty as recommended for physical measurements
cannot be transferred readily to chemical measurements. Physical
measurements and chemical measurements have entirely different error
patterns that behave differently on replication. Correctable local bias
predominates in physical systems and random error is minor; random error
predominates in chemical systems and bias is difficult to identify and
eradicate. Therefore bias must be monitored by randomizing in the
interlaboratory environment, a concept not handled by the conventional ISO
treatment of uncertainty.
Fetching data from CrossRef. This may take some time to load.