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Issue 10, 1994
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Tutorial review. Calculating standard deviations and confidence intervals with a universally applicable spreadsheet technique

Abstract

A quick and universally applicable spreadsheet method is outlined for the calculation of standard deviations based on the general formula for error propagation: “graphic omitted” With this method, standard deviations are calculated numerically without violating the condition of mutual independence, with a substantial time gain and with no risk of calculating errors. Satterthwaite's approximation of the degrees of freedom is a logical extension of the technique with which confidence intervals can be easily established. Direct insight is obtained about the separate contributions of the different error sources.

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Article type: Review Article
DOI: 10.1039/AN9941902161
Citation: Analyst, 1994,119, 2161-2165
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    Tutorial review. Calculating standard deviations and confidence intervals with a universally applicable spreadsheet technique

    J. Kragten, Analyst, 1994, 119, 2161
    DOI: 10.1039/AN9941902161

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