Electrochemical phase formation. Time-dependent nucleation and growth rates
The theory of phase formation is generalised for any arbitrary time dependence of nucleation and growth rates. Some sources of this time dependence are time-dependent potential inputs, ohmic drop and the ingestion effect. Particular cases, such as potentiostatic and, especially, linear potential sweep, are worked out for the two limiting cases of nucleation, namely instantaneous and progressive. The ohmic drop is discussed and a procedure for this correction is indicated. Recent results of Angerstein-Kozlowska, Conway and Klinger are critically investigated. Several earlier results are deduced as special cases. Evans' overlap formula is generalised for the time-dependent case and the equivalence between Avrami's and Evans' equations established.